A lot of questions were left unanswered, here is my attempt to explain through science.
Let us start from the beginning.
The universe was formed some billion years ago. Through which mechanism is still unknown, the big bang theory is the most promising and is currently being tested. Let’s start at that.
What is the Island?
Planets, stars and other heavenly bodies were formed and among them Earth. On earth, patches of electromagnetic fields (among others) were formed. Those fields not only play a key role to our geography but a key role of our role in space and time/the universe. The island just happens to be a landmass placed on such a field. This field combines known and yet unknown theories of physics and consciousness, which I’ll explain more later on.
The numbers and the survivors of Flight 815
Since it is a field that breaks the concept of time/space, it can only be found through precise coordinates, which explains the numbers 4 8 15 16 23 42. Or in the case of the Oceanic Flight 815, by “accident”. They are all a part of a larger plan it seems, interconected and important to the survival of the island, they are a part of the island pact and their lives altered by the protector Jacob. This is where science is a bit vague and more left to mythology. But for the sake of the argument, let’s just assume they do exist and they did crash and survive on the island and let’s face it, numerology and math is mindblowing in itself so we don’t even need to speculate the meaning of the numbers. Let’s assume they hold a larger mythological meaning and are coordinates at the same time.
Let’s start look at the start. The Island is found by man, man decides to explore it. At least one person decides that it is not to be left in the hands of the ordinary and therefore fills in a pact with the island. How that happens is beyond my scientific grasp, but not impossible. And within that pact a set of rules was formed, which keeps e.g. Jacob and the candidates safe from the black smoke.
The Dharma Initiative and The Scientist
As time goes by, more and more people try to find the island, and to harvest it’s potential. The first protector is shown to us and by the clothes, the female protector who delivers Jacob and his brother seems to be in the 1700th century. As is shown to us throughout the story, the Islands visitors date back to ancient Egypt and beyond the early stages of civilization, suggesting even Mayan influences. They are the ones who have built up temples around the Islands high density power points.
The Dharma is a major company trying to unravel the mystery of the island, but are killed off by Ben. In the 1950’s scientist from Dharma land on the island and establish labs and work stations, such as the hatches which are placed on the central points of the electromag.fields. They are trying to scientifically harvest the powers from the source. They find two major findings.
1) Found by Milos father Dr Chang. The island has the capability to move items. To transport them molecule by molecule. To where? That was the big question. When Ben tried, he was moved to the Tunisian desert, the same for Locke. It is a hypothesis on the island that the fields are a “time bender” as previously proposed by Einstein. Which means that time is not linear but just like a string can be bent. The Island does just that. So when Ben move the Island, he moves it in time, not space. Unsyncing it’s existence with the rest of the physical world. As Daniel Faraday (described in point 2) shows, when a rocket is launched from a floater outside the islands fields, it takes the rocket longer than usual to reach the shore, because it not only passes space, it has to recalibrate through time. I.e. 4pm is 3pm on the island, and a rocket that takes 8min will reach the island in 10min.
2) The second discovery was made by Daniel Faraday . Daniel is the young scientist focused on physics, cognition and consciousness. More on theories of consciousness HERE. He discovered that a precision of “fields” of magnetic power (or as I call it yet undiscovered laws of physics) can transport your consciousness. It is assumed that consciousness is linear. That just as we can dream off in our heads and end up in a memory (sometimes it can feel as if we are experiencing the memory fully all over again) one’s consciousness is sent physically to a point in one’s life. No matter what the time frame is, you can send you consciousness (including executive functions, your bodily control etc) back and forth in time. If I think of a memory in other words, I can send my consciousness and fully aware of what to do next, and alternate some paths, but not change the outcome. Which we first experience with Daniels experiment on mice and his meeting with Desmond Hume. Unfortunately, this type of action is too straining for the brain. The only one to survive such an experiment was Desmond Hume, and his was by accident through a burst of the flow of the fields on the island. The island, with other word is a large scale magnetic laser pointed at the inhabitant’s brains and can send their consciousness as well as their bodies back and forth in time. But remember, you can’t change what’s already happened. This happens when Ben leaves it on a loop when he moves the island. The time laps and gaps is probably the reason why the molecular structure of the castaways doesn’t behave ordinarily, e.g. Roses cancer, healing time for wounds, Locks legs and other injuries.
Why no pregnant women could carry to full term and live
As explained previously, the Island preformes some form of epigenetics and pregnancy requires quite linear time frame for the development of a child, particularly when it comes to brain development and therefore consciousness. The field keep new life fron forming, or rather forming towards the end. It is said that higher consciousness arises in the third trimester of a pregnancy, so it is plausable that at this time, the pregnancy errupts because the timeframe of the Island disturbes normal development. Women die because the spontanious abortions are to hard for their bodies to handle.
The Black Smoke
The black smoke is a force who tries to destroy the island and is originally Jacobs brother.
The Black smoke is a hybrid of a bad will and a trapped consciousness. When Jacobs brother died, Jacob threw him in to one of the patches of the magnetises. My theory is that his molecular structure was destabilized, his consciousness turned in to a large case of Schrödinger’s cat. His body dead and alive at the same time, his consciousness mixed and molecularly changed in to becoming the black smoke. In fact the whole island becomes at a point a case of Schrödinger’s cat, since we get the images of the Island on the bottom of the ocean after the attempt to blow up the hatch. The island is both destroyed and not at the same time.
Desmond Hume and the failsafe
Desmond, being one of the few that can (most likely) genetically be more resilient and has had a prolonged contact on the island become immune to its antics is used as a puppet in the game between Jacob and the black smoke. Every theory has a loophole, and Desmond is the failsafe of the Island. He is the exception that confirms the rule and his consciousness is not linear like the rest of the inhabitants, he can control and move the story ahead. We can also see a large span of psychological manipulation. Everyone who dies becomes a pawn on the island. Ben was early on worked on by the smoke through his mother and his daughter Alex.
Now, to the final episode. Jack saves the island by sacrificing himself. He enters the magnetic force, and is flashed, his consciousness sent to the alternative choice for Schrödingers cat, all are alive and well, they land safely. But since he is damaged, and his consciousness leaving his body, he realises that the flash is a transient period in which he moves on to another world, where he is dead, or is dying. This part is hard to explain, and scientifically hypothesize. Better to watch this guy.